Terminus FE1.1 USB hub board: the answer to attach 4 USB units – Open Electronics


 

Based mostly on a single chip from Terminus, it permits you to join 4 USB units ranging from a micro USB port; the form-factor is designed for pairing with Raspberry Pi Zero.

 

Everyone knows what a USB hub is, since no less than as soon as all of us needed to take care of it at residence or work to hook up with a Private Pc port with totally different units, that’s, to attach extra units than the variety of USB ports out there within the PC.

Nicely, the hub is a multiplier of USB ports that enables, ranging from a channel related to a USB host (such because the USB connection inside the pc, for instance …) to double, quadruple, and so forth, distributing, along with the bus, even the ability provide. The sorting consists of a repetition of the info channel, which is possible as a result of, in accordance with the Common Serial Bus protocol, a USB bus, consisting of the canonical two information wires (D+ and D-) referred to the widespread floor with the ability provide (GND), may be approached 127 units (the 128th is the Host, i.e., the Grasp unit of the bus).

Though in the marketplace you’ll find hubs of all styles and sizes, powered or not, it appeared fascinating to develop our mission and suggest it on these pages, for no less than two causes: it’s a small board simply built-in into different digital units, and furthermore, its form-factor was designed to overlap with the well-known Raspberry Pi Zero, which is related by micro USB connector on the facet to increase the chances (the Raspberry Pi Zero has just one USB).

So, let’s analyze the wiring diagram of our small common hub, which helps the two.0 Excessive-Pace model of the protocol and permits you to join units enabling communication between them at a pace (data-rate) of 480 Mbit / s.

 

The USB hub circuit

All the hub has been realized by a single element, which is the Terminus FE1.1 built-in circuit, which internally incorporates a whole USB 2.0 Excessive-Pace hub with 4 ports (known as “downstream”) plus one enter (or begin, if you happen to want, which is the “upstream”), all encapsulated in a 14+14 pin SSOP SMD package deal, as you see in Fig. 1 the place the pinout of the built-in circuit is proven.

 

Fig. 1

 

Our element helps particular options equivalent to GSMA Common Charging Answer (UCS), which is totally compliant with USB-IF specification “Common Serial Bus rev. 2.0 and Battery Charging rev. 1.1; the gadget permits you to implement a 4-port low-power USB 2.0 hub.

The prime quality of the FE1.1 is ensured by the built-in general system scan and self-test mode options, which may be utilized on the analogue front-end (AFE). Excessive, Full, and Low Pace throughout construct and testing.

The FE1.1 might be optionally configured to assist Charging Downstream Ports mode, as outlined by the USB-IF specification; by enabling this characteristic, the USB hub may be simply remodeled right into a battery charging answer for transportable units equivalent to smartphones and tablets.

This established, we will go analyzing the wiring diagram, by which we will see the built-in U1 related within the basic configuration that gives a USB connector to hook up with the Host (USB H) and 4 peripheral units (USB1, USB2, USB3, USB4) which can be equal to one another, from the USBH can also be taken the ability provide for the chip and the 4 USB units.

The built-in circuit has an inner 3.3V voltage regulator whose output voltage, out there between pin 21 and the bottom, is filtered by capacitors C1 and C6 and goes to excessive logic stage on pin OVCJ, which is the safety stage in opposition to the extreme present draw. All of the logic contained in the built-in circuit operates at 3.3V whereas the USB information facet operates at 5V.

 

 

The operation of the entire, and particularly the info charge of the USB ports, is synchronized via the interior oscillator that belongs to the quartz Q1; within the wiring diagram, you see solely the quartz as a result of the “load” capacitors that with it contribute to figuring out the oscillation frequency, are built-in into the FE1.1.

The pull-up resistors that you simply see within the circuit are used to set or disable some options of their pins: for instance, the one related on pin XRSTJ units at a excessive stage the exterior reset line, which on this mission we don’t use and subsequently we maintain it at one logic (3.3V); the road permits you to reset, for instance with a button, the operation of the hub, if it will get caught, so if you wish to have a tough reset, you want to join a usually open unipolar button between pin 17 and GND and you’re going to get it.

R4 units the Bus Energy Sense operation via the VBUSJ pin, whose standing identifies the first energy supply of the hub; in our case, the excessive stage signifies that the hub is self-powered and that the supply has sufficient energy to provide Excessive-Energy units on the downstream ports facet (that is the case of utilizing an influence provide that gives present -through a coaxial plug- to Vdd5 and GND pins).

In any other case, i.e., if pin 19 is held low, it’s assumed that energy is coming via the USB Host socket, and subsequently the IC limits the present of every USB downstream port to 100 mA.

R5, utilized to pin 18, manages the Upstream Port Energy (VBUS) Monitor perform, which means that the built-in unit screens the presence of energy on the USB bus on the Host facet: a excessive stage implies that the Host is powered. Subsequently the hub can work usually, whereas if the extent is low, it implies that on the USBH enter socket, there isn’t any energy, and subsequently the hub is put in a power-down state.

Within the circuit, there are additionally 4 LEDs mounted two by two antiparallelly and pushed by two particular pins which can be LED1 (pin 23) and LED2 (pin 24); the 4 LEDs have, in flip, a standard pin that’s DRV, which is switched by the interior logic to activate the diodes in multiplex mode. In follow, the management of LEDs is as follows: when you want to mild LD1 and LD2 (or simply one of many two), you set the DRV line to a excessive stage and LED1 and/or LED2 to zero logic, whereas when you want to mild LD3 and/or LD4, you ship the DRV to zero logic and put LED1 and/or LED2 to a excessive stage.

 

 

The primary output manages the LEDs indicating {that a} gadget is related to the downstream ports 1 and three, i.e., LD1 issues exercise on the USB1 connector and LD3 that on the USB3 connector; when at LD2, it reveals the presence of units related to USB2 (LD2) and to USB4 (LD4).

Every pair of LEDs absorbs a present restricted by the resistor that’s in sequence (R1 for D1/D3 and R2 for D2/D4), and that clearly intervenes on just one diode at a time, since, being the LEDs in antiparallel, when one leads the opposite is blocked and vice versa, the present of 1 diode at a time at all times flows within the resistor.

We proceed with the circuit evaluation by going to resistor R6, which units the bias present of the analog phases contained in the IC.

We conclude the outline of the circuit diagram with capacitors C2 and C5, positioned between pin VD18 and floor, which, like these utilized to pins VDD3 (between them and floor), are used to filter the voltage generated by the regulator at 1.8V contained in the built-in circuit.

 

Part Checklist:

R1, R2: 470 ohms (0805)

R3, R4, R5: 100kohm (0805)

R6: 2.7 kohm 1% (0805)

C1, C2, C3:  10µF6.3V Ceramic (0805)

C4, C5, C6, C7: 100 nF ceramic (0805)

LD1, LD2, LD3, LD4: Inexperienced LED(0805)

Q1: Quartz 12Mhz (3.2 x 2.5mm)

U1: FE1.1s

USB1, USB2, USB3, USB4: USB-A feminine connector from CS

USBH: Micro-USB connector

 

Varied

– Printed circuit board S1459 (86×37 mm)

 

Scheme

 

CONCLUSIONS

The small USB hub that we’ve got described performs the identical duties because the USB 2.0 hubs that you’ll find in the marketplace and subsequently permits you to join as much as 4 USB units (for instance, printers, mice and keyboards, scanners …) in gadget mode to a single USB port, which may be that of a private laptop.

It additionally offers energy to the units, supplied that they soak up, all collectively, the utmost present drawable from the USB of the pc and bearable by the micro USB socket that’s the enter port.

To rely on a better present to the output ports must interrupt the observe that carries the +5V from the micro USB socket to the 4 USB-A and energy the +5V line of the latter with an exterior energy provide, able to delivering all the present that the Common Serial Bus 2.0 commonplace contemplates for USB ports; the factor is completely possible, though it was not performed in our hub as a result of the circuit was not created with that objective.

The circuit can nonetheless be used as a stand-alone hub or built-in into present tools, maybe mixed with a Raspberry Pi board.

FROM OPENSTORE

Chip 1 IN – 4 OUT USB 2.0 Excessive Pace



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