Hydrogen gasoline cells vs. lithium-ion batteries: Powering EVs

Hydrogen gasoline cells vs. lithium-ion batteries: two distinctive applied sciences powering electrical autos (EVs).

Electrical autos, EVs, are seen as the way forward for mobility. In 2022, they account for six% of all automobile gross sales within the US, with a goal of fifty% by 2030. Some international locations go even additional. In Europe, the sale of recent petrol automobiles will likely be banned beginning in 2035.

On this technical revolution, oil is changed by electrical energy and our fuel tank by lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, like all new applied sciences, lithium-ion shouldn’t be with out its flaws, and a challenger, the hydrogen gasoline cell, might additionally get its share of the pie.

Let’s assessment each applied sciences and discover out what the way forward for electrical autos appears like.


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Hydrogen gasoline cells vs. lithium-ion batteries: what’s the distinction?

There’s a main distinction between hydrogen gasoline cells and lithium-ion batteries:

A gasoline cell generates electrical energy from hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2), whereas lithium-ion battery shops and provides electrical energy and requires an exterior supply for charging.

As proven under, the gasoline cell is all the time coupled with a hydrogen tank and a lithium-ion battery in an EV.

Hydrogen fuel cell vs. lithium-ion battery processes in EVs.

Hydrogen gasoline cells and lithium batteries each use (electro)chemical reactions to generate or retailer electrical energy.

Their energetic supplies and core reactions are totally different, however they share the identical elements:

  • Cathode.
  • Anode.
  • Separator (membrane).
  • Electrolyte.
  • Present collector.

Let’s rapidly assessment their working precept.

Hydrogen gasoline cell: working precept

Hydrogen fuel (the gasoline) is fed on the anode, and air enters by the cathode. A catalyst, often platinum, on the anode separates hydrogen into protons (h+) and electrons (e). The electrons move into {the electrical} circuit, and the protons journey from the anode to the cathode to react with oxygen and generate water and warmth as a by-product.

Working principle of a fuel cell
Working precept of a gasoline cell.

Lithium-ion battery: working precept

A lithium-ion battery is a tool that converts electrical energy into chemical power. An electrochemical reversible response can retailer electrical energy (charging) or provide electrical energy (discharging).

In a lithium-ion battery, lithium ions (Li+) are exchanged between the anode and the cathode.

In the course of the charging course of, electrons move from the anode to the cathode inducing a switch of the lithium ions from the cathode to the anode. The other response occurs throughout discharge.

Working principle of lithium-ion battery.
Working precept of lithium-ion battery.

Are hydrogen gasoline cells extra environment friendly than lithium-ion batteries?

The effectivity of a hydrogen gasoline cell is round 50%. In different phrases, 50% of the hydrogen equipped to the gasoline cell is successfully transformed into electrical energy.

The effectivity of a lithium-ion battery is round 98%. Almost all electrons that undergo the battery are successfully saved and launched (cost and discharge).

Nevertheless, maintain in my thoughts that we can’t instantly examine the effectivity of a gasoline cell and a lithium-ion battery. Certainly, the gasoline cell generates electrical energy from a major power supply (hydrogen), and the battery shops electrical energy and wishes an exterior supply of electrical energy to be charged.

Hydrogen gasoline cells vs. lithium-ion batteries: Infrastructure

Undoubtedly, electrical autos will take over our conventional combustion engines within the close to future.

For this power revolution to turn into a actuality, huge infrastructure investments are wanted.

The developments are primarily centered on the next:

  • Manufacturing services.
  • Distribution system.
  • Charging station.

Within the chart under, we’ve summarized the infrastructures wanted for each applied sciences:

Hydrogen gasoline cells Li-ion batteries
Manufacturing services Hydrogen manufacturing crops Energy crops
Distribution system Pipes and tanks Electrical transmission strains
Charging station Hydrogen refilling station Charging stations

Li-ion batteries infrastructure

Though fairly current, Li-ion is probably the most mature know-how.

The principle problem with EVs is to provide electrical energy rapidly to a number of places.

In 2022, the common EV battery measurement is 50kWh, with a charging time (10%-80%) of 35 minutes on a speedy charging station vs. 7 minutes on a full fuel tank. That is the weak level of electrical autos: the slowness of charging.

This technical drawback is a big problem for engineers. On the one hand, they’re making an attempt to enhance batteries to just accept increased charging energy. However, they’re dealing with the technical problem of supplying high-power charging stations.

At present, the Tesla supercharger reaches 250kW, and your EV will get 200 miles of additional autonomy in quarter-hour. That is nonetheless very removed from our petrol automobiles. To chop the recharge time by 2, we would want a 500kW supercharger.

Now let’s do a easy calculation, if 5 automobiles are linked to a charging station, the moment energy wanted is 2.5MW.

There are greater than 140,000 EV chargers within the US (53,000 charging stations). If all charging stations are geared up with a future 500kW supercharger, the moment energy wanted could be roughly 53’000 x 2.5MW= 132GW.

That is equal to 132 nuclear reactors!

In conclusion, we’d like large investments in new energy crops and electrical energy grids for EVs to be massively adopted

Hydrogen gasoline cell infrastructures

Popularized by Jeremy Rifkin in his ebook the hydrogen economic system (2002). Hydrogen is seen as probably the most promising candidate to interchange our fossil gasoline economic system.

Nevertheless, after greater than 20 years, the event of infrastructures remains to be extraordinarily restricted.

Switching from petrol to hydrogen requires huge funding in hydrogen manufacturing services, distribution, and refilling stations.

Hydrogen doesn’t exist as a pure supply and must be produced. At present, 98% of hydrogen manufacturing is from fossil fuels. The problem is to change to renewable sources corresponding to water electrolysis powered by photo voltaic or wind power.

With solely 107 refilling stations within the US, the hydrogen distribution system is extraordinarily restricted. There’s nonetheless an extended option to go earlier than hydrogen and gasoline cells turn into a actuality for our autos.

Will hydrogen automobiles overtake electrical autos?

Over the long run — 30 to 40 years — there’s a probability for hydrogen automobiles to overhaul electrical autos.

The principle cause is that it’s a lot simpler to retailer and switch hydrogen than electrical energy.

Semi-commercial hydrogen automobiles can already obtain quick refilling, gaining 300 miles in 3 to five minutes, with a complete vary of greater than 840 miles for the Toyota Mirai.

That stated, we’re nonetheless removed from seeing hydrogen gasoline cells turning into mainstream.

Hydrogen vs. lithium-ion: what does the long run appear like?

There is no such thing as a doubt that the way forward for automotive is electrical, however will our future electrical automobiles be powered by lithium-ion batteries or gasoline cells?

Though gasoline cell automobiles can already obtain quick refilling and maintain the identical autonomies as petrol automobiles, it’s probably that the know-how won’t take over the EV market but.

To turn into a actuality, the hydrogen economic system wants large investments throughout all its worth chain within the tons of of billions of {dollars}.

For the subsequent 20 to 30 years, the lithium-ion battery would be the main EV know-how.

Within the close to future, we will anticipate 5 main enhancements for battery-powered EVs:

  • Value discount, with the huge adoption of electrical automobiles, the costs are more likely to drop.
  • Elevated autonomy by enhancing battery capability.
  • Improved security with solid-state battery.
  • Extra recharging stations.
  • Quick charging.

The final level is probably the most difficult, can we produce sufficient electrical energy for our electrical automobiles, and may the electrical grid deal with large energy demand?

Based on specialists, it’s potential so long as we fastidiously plan the development of recent energy crops.  

Ultimate ideas

Hydrogen is taken into account the gasoline of the long run; it’s extremely energetic and may be produced from renewable power and water.

Gas cells convert hydrogen into electrical energy and solely emit water and warmth as a by-product.

Large R&D investments within the early 2000s led to the event of gasoline cell-powered autos that may already obtain quick refilling and lengthy vary.

The principle impediment to this know-how turning into mainstream is the huge infrastructure investments. Because of this, we gained’t see any hydrogen automobiles on our roads earlier than 20 to 30 years.

However, lithium-ion know-how is massively adopted for EVs. Lithium batteries nonetheless undergo from low recharge pace and restricted autonomy vs. petrol automobiles, however we will anticipate fast enchancment.

Probably the most difficult half is creating charging infrastructures and energy crops to refill the tons of of hundreds of thousands of EVs that will likely be out on the highway within the subsequent 20 years.

Are you curious about hydrogen and its future functions? We’ve crafted an accessible DIY gasoline cell mission to familiarize ourselves with the know-how.

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